July 17, 2021. Morning light – in the works, the TMS new Middle School. The environment, depending on its qualities- has the ability to activate your involuntary attention – your fascination, Late nineteenth century psychologist William James defined the distinction between “voluntary” and “involuntary” attention. When you cross a busy intersection or pore over a spreadsheet, you are depleting finite reserves of voluntary, directed attention. Natural environments, or those with similar qualities on the other hand, provide softly fascinating stimulation; your eye is captured by the shape of a branch, a ripple in the water, the play of light and shadow which your mind follows – involuntary attention.